Right and Duty Ethics | Engineering Ethics

In Right ethics - Human rights is the ultimate appeal and it should be respected; In Duty ethics - Duty is placed on others. For example, if we take right to live, we are placing a duty on others that they should not kill us

Right Ethics

Right ethics are ethics that most important to human rights. According to the right ethics theory, human rights is the ultimate appeal and it should be respected. Human rights are entirely different from legal rights.

 

  • A few examples of human rights are freedom of speech, freedom of expression and right to privacy.

  • Right ethics also applies to engineer. In the engineering code of ethics, we give paramount importance to the safety, health, and welfare of the public

Ethical theories should be chosen according to the given situation. As the carpenter selects the tool according to the work he has to do. We can understand it further using a case study
    The case I: building a dam: building a dam has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are that people get water for irrigation and power. The disadvantage is that the village nearby will be submerged.
    case II: chemical plant: building a chemical plant too has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are that the people nearby get a job, and the chemical produced there can be used for making medicines and useful drugs. The disadvantages are that the chemical plant releases hazardous waste into water bodies or fields which will affect the people as well as animals.
Here when we discuss these two cases, we find that the second case has more disadvantages than the advantage it has. Thus the decision would be taken that the plant should not be constructed on the grounds of the right ethics. And then the first case has more advantage than the disadvantage it has. Though the village will be submerged it can be relocated and given compensation. So here we will choose to build the dam on the grounds of the utilitarianism concept.
So according to the situation we choose different ethical theories. Ethics are chosen according to the rules and principles and not according to the after-effects or consequences.

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ESE General Studies Package

Generally speaking from the last year patterns, questions are of two types.

1. General understanding of topics

2. Specific questions/ terms 

Our study package for ESE General Studies is designed as per this latest question pattern. 

Example for Engineering Code of Ethics

  • Rights not to be injured by dangerous products.

  • Rights to privacy.

  • Rights to receive benefits through a fair and honest exchange in a free market place.

Classification - Liberty and Welfare Rights

  • Liberty rights: Liberty rights are the rights which as the name suggests, other people should not interfere with your freedom.
     

  • Welfare rights: Welfare rights are the rights with some benefits. It has nothing to do with our freedom.
     

Many of the right ethicists say that both the liberty right and welfare right is important. John Lucke was a right ethicist who focused on liberty rights and thus called libertarian.

Duty Ethics

Duty ethics and the right ethics are correlated with a slight difference. Duty ethics simply means that these ethics place a duty on others. For example, if we take right to live, in this right we have a right to live but then we are placing a duty on others that they should not kill us. This duty placed on others is known as duty ethics.

 

This particular approach is known as a deontological approach. So in this approach, we ascertain certain duties and then drive some rights from it. The deontological approach says that duty is the base of ethics. 

Duty Ethics by Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant was one of the most popular duty ethicists. He says that all the duties derive from one fundamental duty. And that fundamental duty which he suggests in that respect a person.

 

Respecting a person means that you will respect their autonomy and all other rights come under this. He also says that duty ethics are universal and that it applies equally to every person and there is no discrimination.

 

Immanuel Kant had three ideas on duty ethics

  • Universality: it suggests that duty ethics apply to all rational agents or persons.

  • Categorical imperatives: it suggests that rules command whatever is right. These rules are derived from the set of duties. It is so because it is the right way to do it.

  • Absolutism: this idea says that whatever rule you derived from the set of duties there are no exceptions from it. Many ethicists rejected this idea because sometimes there are some duties which have some justified exceptions. These kinds of duties are known as prima facie duties.

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APSEd ESE General Studies Package

Generally speaking from the last year patterns, questions are of two types.

1. General understanding of topics

 

For example, they ask questions like - Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is aimed to help ________. 
If you have understood EIA, this question can be answered easily.

 

2. Specific questions/ terms 

 

For example, they ask questions like - The ‘Minamata Tragedy’ was caused by the eating of fish growing in the Minamata Bay contaminated with _________. 
This kind of questions needs extra reading after understanding the topics.

 

Our study package for ESE General Studies is designed as per this latest question pattern. 

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