Different Methods of Irrigation
There are different methods of irrigation - surface and subsurface irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation. Surface irrigation is further classified into strip irrigation, border irrigation, check irrigation, furrow irrigation
Supplying sufficient water at the required time is the sole advantage of studying irrigation. The important methods of irrigation are
The amount of water required is also dependent on soil characteristics like permeability of soil, moisture holding capacity of soil and so on.
Water supply to the plants on the surface. Flooding is the type of surface irrigation, which means the direct application of water to the field. There are two types of flooding, called
Uncontrolled/Wild Flooding: Quantity and the direction of flow is not under the control
Controlled/Free flooding: Controlled distribution of water from the outlet. Again in controlled flooding, there are various types of irrigation methods possible.
Strips of earth bunds/levees are constructed. Water then supplied from the ditch to the field. Lengths of strips may vary around 100-400 m. Space between the strips may vary around 10-20 m. The slope of the strips should be less than 2%.
This type of irrigation is adopted when there are levelled agricultural lands. The lands are enclosed by the bunds. In the land, water gets stagnated for a long duration.
Example: Irrigation of Rice
Basin Flood Irrigation
This is a special type of check irrigation. Basins are formed instead of level plots. Irrigation of Orchard trees is one of the examples of basin flood irrigation.
Small channels of water are called furrows. In this type of irrigation, the plant is not in contact with water directly. ⅕th to ½ nd of the land gets wetted, so less possibility of evaporation. It is used for crops like Maize.
In this type of irrigation water gets supplied to the plants below the ground through pipes, to the root zone. Less evaporation occurs as the water is not exposed to the atmosphere.
Water supply through the sprinkler system in this irrigation. Uniform distribution of water takes place. This is a slightly costly system of irrigation.
Water supply to each plant through drop by drop. In this irrigation maximum utilization of water takes place. This irrigation is not suitable for the crops of closely spaced plants.