Essentials of Civil Engineering

Learn the fundamentals

Overtaking Sight Distance | Overview and Calculation

Overtaking Sight Distance (OSD) is the sight distance required for the faster vehicle to overtake the slower vehicle safely.

Stopping Sight Distance | Overview and Calculation

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) is the minimum sight distance for the driver to stop without colliding at any point of the highway.

Factors affecting Geometric Design of Road

To design a road, it involves the terrain and other features to be considered. Some of the important features are width of the road, friction, camber, Sight distance, Horizontal Alignments and Vertical alignments

Fundamental Traffic Flow Characteristics - Speed, Flow and Density

The three fundamental traffic flow characteristics are speed (v), flow (q) and density (k). The characteristics are generally defined by traffic flow measurements, and time/space mean speed measurements

Different Methods of Irrigation

There are different methods of irrigation - surface and subsurface irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation. Surface irrigation is further classified into strip irrigation, border irrigation, check irrigation, furrow irrigation

Permeability of soils and Factors affecting permeability

Ease with which the water can flow through soil is known as permeability. Larger the pores more the permeability and vice versa.

Sieve Analysis - Soil Classification Gradation Curve

Sieve analysis is a procedure to assess the particle size distribution. Different sizes of sieves are used to classify the soil as uniformly graded, well graded, poorly graded or gap graded.

Consistency limits in soil - Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, Shrinkage Limit

The gradual increase of water content in soil, makes the soil change its form from solid to semi solid to plastic to liquid. The water contents at which the phase change of soil occurs, are called the consistency limits.

Break point chlorination and Types of Chlorination

Breakpoint chlorination is the point where the demand for chlorine has been fully satisfied in terms of chlorine addition to the water. In other words, the chlorine has completely reacted with the bather pollutants leaving a zero chlorine residual.

Turbidity of water - Definition and Measurement | Environment

Turbidity is one of the important physical characteristics of water. It is the measure of relative clarity of water samples. The higher the intensity of scattered light, the higher the turbidity.

Connections used in steel structures - Fastening, Rigidity and Bolts

The various steel members like beam, columns are interconnected using Rivets, Bolts and Welding. This is known as connection. Connections are of various types.

Force method of analysis | Structural Analysis

The force method (also called the flexibility method or method of consistent deformation ) is used to calculate reactions and internal forces in statically indeterminate structures due to loads and imposed deformations.