Ethical Theories | Ethics and Values in Engineering Profession

Most of the times we have two opinions. Ethical theory helps us in choosing the right thing to do. The theory should be chosen in the same way carpenter selects the tool according to the work he has to do.

Ethical theories should be chosen according to the given situation. As the carpenter selects the tool according to the work he has to do. We can understand it further using a case study

 

  • Case I: Building a dam: building a dam has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are that people get water for irrigation and power. The disadvantage is that the village nearby will be submerged.

 

  • Case II: Chemical plant: building a chemical plant too has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are that the people nearby get a job, and the chemical produced there can be used for making medicines and useful drugs. The disadvantages are that the chemical plant releases hazardous waste into water bodies or fields which will affect the people as well as animals.

Here when we discuss these two cases, we find that the second case has more disadvantages than the advantage it has. Thus the decision would be taken that the plant should not be constructed on the grounds of the right ethics.

 

The first case has more advantage than the disadvantage it has. Though the village will be submerged it can be relocated and given compensation. So here we will choose to build the dam on the grounds of the utilitarianism concept.


So according to the situation we choose different ethical theories. Ethics are chosen according to the rules and principles and not according to the after-effects or consequences.
 

Ethical theories should be chosen according to the given situation. As the carpenter selects the tool according to the work he has to do. We can understand it further using a case study
    The case I: building a dam: building a dam has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are that people get water for irrigation and power. The disadvantage is that the village nearby will be submerged.
    case II: chemical plant: building a chemical plant too has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are that the people nearby get a job, and the chemical produced there can be used for making medicines and useful drugs. The disadvantages are that the chemical plant releases hazardous waste into water bodies or fields which will affect the people as well as animals.
Here when we discuss these two cases, we find that the second case has more disadvantages than the advantage it has. Thus the decision would be taken that the plant should not be constructed on the grounds of the right ethics. And then the first case has more advantage than the disadvantage it has. Though the village will be submerged it can be relocated and given compensation. So here we will choose to build the dam on the grounds of the utilitarianism concept.
So according to the situation we choose different ethical theories. Ethics are chosen according to the rules and principles and not according to the after-effects or consequences.

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Advantages of Ethical Theories

  • Ethical theories help a person to arrive at a decision. 

  • Ethical theories help us to choose what is appropriate for the given situation.

  • Ethical theories also give us a perspective on morality.

  • Ethical theories assist us in making reasonable choices.

  • Ethical theories are useful in solving some dilemmas. 

Different Ethical Theories

Virtue Ethics

Virtue ethics is the ethics of a good man. In simple words, we can say that virtue ethics is how a good person will act. A good person will have a certain set of virtues like he will be trustworthy, honest, etc.

Deontological Ethics

Deontological ethics are the ethics that are governed by rules and principles and not by the consequences. If we are in a decision where the right of a person or community is at stake, we should act according to this ethics

Teleological Ethics

This ethics is more based on the consequences or the end goal. It is derived from the word ‘telos’ which mean the end goal. Teleological ethics deals with the attainment of certain end goals. The most common under this is Utilitarianism

  • Utilitarianism concepts states that the actions are right morally if the end result is for the greater good

APSEd ESE General Studies Package

Generally speaking from the last year patterns, questions are of two types.

1. General understanding of topics

 

For example, they ask questions like - Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is aimed to help ________. 
If you have understood EIA, this question can be answered easily.

 

2. Specific questions/ terms 

 

For example, they ask questions like - The ‘Minamata Tragedy’ was caused by the eating of fish growing in the Minamata Bay contaminated with _________. 
This kind of questions needs extra reading after understanding the topics.

 

Our study package for ESE General Studies is designed as per this latest question pattern. 

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